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N. N. DEMOCHKIN. The Soviets in the Conditions of Developed Socialism

The article examines the systematic improvement and perfection of the work of the Soviets as the organs of state power comprising the political foundation of the state as an organization of the entire people, and analyzes a number of specific features intrinsic to their activity in the period of developed socialism. The author highlights the composition of the Soviets and of their Executive Committees, their close ties with the masses, the questions discussed by the Soviets at their regular sessions, the activities carried on by the Executive Committees, the Standing Commissions and the members of the Soviets at all levels, as well as the systematic efforts made by the CPSU to heighten the political, business and moral training of the personnel employed in the Soviet government apparatus.

V. K. KISELEV. The Intelligence Service of the Partisan Movement in Byelorussia (June 1941 - July 1944)

The author makes an attempt to highlight the principal aspects of organization and activity of the partisan movement's intelligence service in Byelorussia in the years of the Great Patriotic War. The article is based in the main on extensive documentary material kept in the Party archives of the Institute of Party History under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Byelorussia, a large part of which is published for the first time. The author shows the guiding role exercised by the Communist Party in organizing and directing the activity of the partisan army's intelligence service, analyzes the forms and methods of its work, specially emphasizing its specific nature (active participation in the political work carried on among the broadest sections of the population, in the enemy garrisons, the provision of partisant units with arms and ammunition, planning and carrying out subversive operations). Considerable attention is devoted by the author to illustrating the social composition of the intelligence service, tracing the foot causes of its successful work, graphically demonstrating the supreme courage and heroism displayed by Soviet intelligence men in the struggle against a perfectly trained, insidious and ruthless enemy. The multifaceted activity of the partisan movement's intelligence service is examined in close connection with the nation-wide struggle carried on in the enemy rear.

V. E. ILLERITSKY. The Petrashevskyans' Historical Views

The article analyzes a very important aspect of the Petrashevskyans' world outlook- their historical views. This hitherto uninvestigated aspect of the ideological principles expounded by the young progressive commoner intellectuals and democraticallyminded representatives of the lower middle class comprising the membership of Petrashevsky's revolutionary circle of Utopian Socialists is examined by the author in close connection with their theory of the historical process, their appraisal of the major stages and events in the development of both general and Russian history. The article brings out, on the one hand, a number of features in the Petrashevskyans' historical views which they share in common with those of Vissarion Belinsky and Alexander Herzen, while, on the other hand, drawing attention to some of their specific features anticipating the historical views of N. G. Chernyshevsky and N. A. Dobrolyubov.

E. I. YAROPOLOV. The Students' Movement in Italy in the First Half of the 1960's

The article closely analyzes the social and political conditions responsible for the rise of the students' movement in Italy in the late 1960's. The author shows the students' ideological evolution from almost complete indifference to politics to active participation in the general democratic, anti-capitalist struggle. The article makes a point of stressing that among the causes which stimulated the students' mounting protest pride of place belongs to the growth of the working-class movement in Italy, the heightened activity of the Communist Party and its youth organization - the Italian Communist Youth Federation.

M. Y. DOMNICH. Christian Syndicalism During the Second World War Period

In the years of the second world war national trade union centres of Christian syndicalism took part in the Resistance movement. Bourgeois historiography - both secular and clerical - is making strenuous efforts to exaggerate the role of Christian trade unions in this movement. Yet it is commonly known that the anti-fascism of the labour organiza-

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tions affiliated with the International Confederation of Christian Trade Unions was inconsistent and marked by inner contradictions, which should be attributed to the influence exerted by Christian world outlook, the social religious doctrine of the Church and the close connections with the Church hierarchy, whose spiritual tutelage had a powerful impact on the trade union elite and permeated every aspect of their activity. Even when forced to go into hiding, they did not immediately join the armed struggle against the invader, conducted a policy of distrust and open hostility towards the Communists - those genuine organizers of the Resistance movement, and thereby prevented the establishment of a united anti-fascist front. In contradistinction to this myopic policy. the rank-and-file members of the Christian trade unions showed themselves to be ardent patriots and courageous fighters in the ranks of the Resistance movement.

V. I. KOZLOV. Concerning the Biologico-Geographlcal Conception of Ethnic History

The article is devoted to a critical analysis of the conception put forward by L. N. Gumilev in a number of his works. The author shows that it represents a peculiar combination of long-evolved conceptions of geographical determinism with biological and psychological conceptions of social development Exaggerating the role of geographical factors in the origin and historical development of nations, attaching decisive significance in the historical process to local and genetically emerging "spontaneous" forces which manifest themselves most clearly in the activity of one or another outstanding historical personality (Alexander the Great, Mohammed, Napoleon, etc.), and unjustifiably identifying historico-social processes with natural- biological and physical phenomena, L. N. Gumilev arrives at a number of patently erroneous and even reactionary conclusions which, moreover, can well create an absolutely wrong impression about the actual views held by Soviet historians and ethnographers.

L. S. VASILYEV. The Origin of Ancient Chinese Civilization

Generalizing the most up-to-date scientific data, the author traces the genesis of ancient Chinese civilization, the role of external contacts and borrowings m the development of this process. He calls in question the existence of a "neolithic revolution" in the given area, outlines the development of the Yangshao agrarian culture and the subsequent Lungshan culture dating back to the late neolithic era. The article further examines the emergence in the Yellow River basin of a seat of Yin civilization characterized by the widespread use of bronze implements, as well as by the system of writing, chariots and other attributes of the Bronze Age.



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Україна Онлайн
Kyiv, Украина
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04.12.2017 (317 дней(я) назад)
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